Document Type: Research Paper
Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Karaj, Iran.
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Seed and Plant Improvement Institute,Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Karaj, Iran
Allelic variations at the Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci play an important role in determining dough visco-elastic properties and bread making quality. Fifty-nine bread wheat cultivars released in Iran since 1951 from four different agro-climate zones, were examined for their high (HMW-GS) and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) composition, controlled at the Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci, respectively. In addition, the presence of the 1B.1R translocation was investigated. Three, eight, and four allelic variations were present at Glu-A1, Glu-B1, and Glu-D1 loci, respectively. Subunits 2*, 7+8, 7+9, and 2+12 are the dominant HMW-GS, at Glu-A1, Glu-B1, and Glu-D1, with frequencies of 45.8, 39, 25.4, and 59.3%, respectively. Five, eight and four allelic variations were present at the Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3 loci, with Glu-A3c, Glu-B3b and Glu-D3b LMW-GS dominating, with frequencies of 52.5, 39 and 59.3%, respectively. The frequencies of allelic variation at Glu-1 and Glu-3 differ greatly in different regions. Among the 59 cultivars/varieties examined in this study, four genotypes were local varieties (6.8%), 27 (45.8%) bred in the national breeding program and 28 (47.4%) originated from international nurseries. The average quality scores based on HMW-GS for local varieties, genotypes from the national breeding program and international nurseries were 5.5, 7.6 and 7.7 respectively. It was concluded that integration of desirable subunits at Glu-1 such as 1, 7+8, 5+10, must be used as the core focus of the breeding program, which could lead to the improvement of gluten quality in Iranian bread wheat cultivars.